Skip to content

Landcover Database

Class and Description | Class Area and % of State

[click on image to enlarge]

The mapping of land cover is done by adopting or developing a land cover classification system, delineating areas of relative homogeneity (basic cartographic “objects”), then labeling these areas using categories defined by the classification system. More detailed attributes of the individual areas are added as more information becomes available, and a process of validating both polygon pattern and labels is applied for editing and revising the map. This is done in an iterative fashion, with the results from one step causing re-evaluation of results from another step.

Code

Class Name

Description

7BeachOpen sand, sandbars, mud and some sand dunes - natural environments as well as exposed sand from dredging and other activities. Mainly in coastal areas, but also inland, especially along the banks of reservoirs.
9Coastal DuneSand dunes and associated vegetation.
11Open WaterLakes, rivers, ponds, ocean, industrial water and aquaculture.
18TransportationRoads, railroads, airports and runways.
20Utility SwathsOpen swaths maintained for transmission lines.
22Low Intensity Urban - NonforestedLow intensity urban areas with little or no tree canopy.
24High Intensity UrbanCommercial/industrial and multi-family residential areas.
31Clearcut - Sparse VegetationRecent clearcuts, sparse vegetation and other early successional areas.
33Quarries, Strip MinesExposed rock and soil from industrial uses, gravel pits and landfills.
34Rock OutcropRock outcrops and mountain tops.
72Parks, RecreationCemeteries, playing fields, campus-like institutions, parks and schools.
73Golf CourseGolf courses.
80Pasture, HayPasture and non-tilled grasses.
83Row CropRow crops, orchards, vineyards, groves and horticultural businesses.
201Forested Urban - DeciduousLow intensity urban areas containing mainly deciduous trees.
202Forested Urban - EvergreenLow intensity urban areas containing mainly evergreen trees.
203Forested Urban - MixedLow intensity urban areas containing mixed deciduous and evergreen trees.
410Mesic HardwoodMesic forests of lower elevations in the mountain regions (Blue Ridge, Cumerland Plateau, and Ridge and Valley) and upper Piedmont. Includes species such as yellow-poplar, sweetgum, white oak, northern red oak, and American beech.
411Sub-mesic HardwoodModerately mesic forests of the mountain regions and upper Piedmont. Includes typical oak-hickory forests. The dominant natural cover class in most mountain areas.
412Hardwood ForestMesic to moderately mesic forests of the lower Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Includes non-wetland floodplain forests of yellow-poplar and sweetgum, ravines of oaks and American beech, and many upland oak-hickory stands.
413Xeric HardwoodDry hardwood forests found throughout the state, although most common in the mountain regions, and progressively more rare southward. Includes areas dominated by southern red oak, scarlet oak, post oak and blackjack oak.
414Deciduous Cove HardwoodMesic forests of sheltered valleys in the Blue Ridge and Cumberland Plateau at moderate to high elevations. Typically includes northern red oak, basswood, buckeye and yellow-poplar.
415Northern HardwoodRestricted to the highest elevations of the Blue Ridge. Dominant tree species may include yellow birch, black cherry, and American beech.
420Live OakForests dominated by live oak. Most common in maritime strands along the Atlantic Coast. Also may occur in strip along southern border into southwest Georgia.
422Open Loblolly-Shortleaf PineOnly mapped in the Piedmont. Includes older, fairly open stands that may be almost savanna-like in appearance.
423Xeric PineVery dry evergreen forests restricted to the mountain regions and upper Piedmont. Includes Virginia, shortleaf, pitch and table mountain pines.
424Hemlock-White PineMesic evergreen forests frequently associated with riparian areas. Restricted to Blue Ridge and Cumberland Plateau.
425White PineModerately mesic evergreen forests of the Blue Ridge, usually dominated by white pine.
431Montane Mixed Pine-HardwoodModerately mesic mixed forests of the Blue Ridge. Typical species include white pine, white oak, hickories and yellow-poplar.
432Xeric Mixed Pine-HardwoodDry mixed forests found throughout the state, although most common in the mountain regions and progressively more rare southward. Includes areas dominated by a mix of pines (most frequently shortleaf or Virginia in the mountains, and shortleaf or longleaf elsewhere) and hardwood species such as southern red oak, scarlet oak, post oak and blackjack oak.
433Mixed Cove ForestMesic mixed forests of sheltered valleys and riparian areas in the Blue Ridge and Cumberland Plateau at moderate to high elevations. Typically includes eastern hemlock, yellow-poplar and black birch.
434Mixed Pine-HardwoodMesic to moderately dry forests of mixed deciduous and evergreen species found throughout the state at lower elevations. May include areas dominated by sweetgum, yellow-poplar, various oak species and loblolly or shortleaf pine.
440Loblolly-Shortleaf PineFound from the upper Coastal Plain northward (rare in the Blue Ridge except at the lowest elevations). Includes many stands heavily managed for silviculture as well as areas regenerating from old field conditions.
441Loblolly-Slash PineFound on the lower Coastal Plain. Includes many heavily managed stands as well as a few natural areas.
511Shrub BaldRestricted to mountain tops at high elevations of the Blue Ridge. May be dominated by mountain laurel, rhododendron or blueberry.
512SandhillAreas of scrub vegetation on deep, sandy soils on the Coastal Plain, especially near the Fall Line and along larger streams. May be dominated by turkey oak, blackjack oak, live oak, holly and longleaf pine.
513Coastal ScrubThickets between coastal dunes, typically dominated by wax myrtle. Sometimes found adjacent to saltmarsh areas.
620Longleaf PineOpen, savanna-type stand. Heavily managed plantations would likely be classed with 440 or 441. Most common on the lower Coastal Plain, although found up to the lower Piedmont and historically in the Ridge and Valley.
890Cypress-Gum SwampRegularly flooded swamp forests mainly found on the Coastal Plain. May include either riparian or depressional wetlands. Usually dominated by pond or baldcypress and/or tupelo gum.
900Bottomland HardwoodLess frequently flooded wetland forests found throughout the state, but most common on the Coastal Plain. To the north, may be dominated by sweetgum, elms and red maple. To the south, wetland oaks (water oak, willow oak, overcup oak, swamp chestnut oak), black gum, and even spruce pine become more common.
920SaltmarshEmergent brackish or saltwater wetlands dominated by Spartina or Juncus.
930Freshwater MarshEmergent freshwater wetlands found throughout the state. May be dominated by grasses or sedges.
980Shrub WetlandClosed canopy, low stature woody wetland. Found throughout the state, although most common on the Coastal Plain. May be result of clearcutting of wetland forests. Frequently includes willows, alders and red maple.
990Evergreen Forested WetlandRestricted to the Coastal Plain. Includes forests dominated by bay species, wet pine forests (typically slash or pond pine) or Atlantic white cedar.


back to top

Code

Class Name

Area (in ha)

% of State

7

Beach

4118.49

0.02673

9

Coastal Dune

587.88

0.00382

11

Open Water

449171.01

2.91559

18

Transportation

971106.66

6.30350

20

Utility Swaths

50331.78

0.32671

22

Low Intensity Urban - Nonforested

90487.35

0.58736

24

High Intensity Urban

122486.85

0.79507

31

Clearcut - Sparse Vegetation

1160820.81

7.53495

33

Quarries, Strip Mines

15841.44

0.10283

34

Rock Outcrop

1150.92

0.00747

72

Parks, Recreation

13262.4

0.08609

73

Golf Course

14089.86

0.09146

80

Pasture, Hay

1179212.04

7.65432

83

Row Crop

1945561.77

12.62874

201

Forested Urban - Deciduous

94298.13

0.61209

202

Forested Urban - Evergreen

64576.8

0.41917

203

Forested Urban - Mixed

56080.8

0.36402

410

Mesic Hardwood

137939.49

0.89537

411

Sub-mesic Hardwood

674146.08

4.37592

412

Hardwood Forest

1367980.38

8.87963

413

Xeric Hardwood

101637.63

0.65973

414

Deciduous Cove Hardwood

36324.63

0.23578

415

Northern Hardwood

108.27

0.00070

420

Live Oak

30816.45

0.20003

422

Open Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine

328356.18

2.13138

423

Xeric Pine

18065.07

0.11726

424

Hemlock-White Pine

4288.77

0.02784

425

White Pine

25675.92

0.16666

431

Montane Mixed Pine-Hardwood

70017.3

0.45449

432

Xeric Mixed Pine-Hardwood

47809.35

0.31033

433

Mixed Cove Forest

9968.94

0.06471

434

Mixed Pine-Hardwood

916774.29

5.95083

440

Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine

1686403.8

10.94653

441

Loblolly-Slash Pine

1668311.91

10.82909

511

Shrub Bald

114.03

0.00074

512

Sandhill

73032.39

0.47406

513

Coastal Scrub

1269.63

0.00824

620

Longleaf Pine

131933.25

0.85639

890

Cypress-Gum Swamp

627486.12

4.07304

900

Bottomland Hardwood

515952.45

3.34907

920

Saltmarsh

146394.99

0.95026

930

Freshwater Marsh

87086.43

0.56528

980

Shrub Wetland

125568.9

0.81507

990

Evergreen Forested Wetland

339181.92

2.20165

back to top